Tamil Nadu legislature turns 100

Tamil Nadu legislature turns 100

2021-08-01 02:29:07

President Ram Nath Kovind will inaugurate the centenary celebrations of the Tamil Nadu legislature tomorrow. The event is critical for a couple of purpose. The Home has handed a number of epoch-making laws, starting with voting rights for ladies in 1921

The Meeting chambers at Fort St. George, the Seventeenth-century vestige of the colonial period and Tamil Nadu’s seat of energy, will witness a historic occasion on Monday (August 2) when President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurates the centenary celebrations of the State legislature.

Mr. Kovind will even unveil the portrait of five-time Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi, who led the ruling Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) for practically half a century, within the presence of Governor Banwarilal Purohit and Chief Minister M.Okay. Stalin, son of the previous Chief Minister. That is the primary time in 4 a long time {that a} portrait of an eminent determine of the State is getting unveiled by the President. In August 1977, then President N. Sanjeeva Reddi had unveiled the portrait of former Chief Minister Okay. Kamaraj.

 

For the State that boasts a Chola inscription of round 920 CE in a tiny city of Uthiramerur, about 90 km south of Chennai, coping with a written Structure, the celebration carries a particular that means past the truth that the legislature has accomplished 100 years of existence.

Inclusive illustration

Tamil Nadu witnessed elections in November 1920 when electors (solely males), accounting for simply 3% of the inhabitants, have been enrolled, on account of the Montagu-Chelmsford Report and the Authorities of India Act of 1919. The event paved the way in which for a extra consultant physique than what it was until then. The proportion of elected members elevated to over 70%. The idea of dyarchy got here into being with Ministers, who have been Indians, gaining restricted management over sure topics, corresponding to native self-government and training. It was then that the workplace of the Chief Minister, additionally referred to as Premier, obtained instituted. Apart from, one seat in every territorial plural-member constituency — 28 in all — was reserved for non-Brahmins.

With the Congress boycotting the election, the Justice Occasion romped dwelling. Eugene F. Irschick, an American historian, in his 1969 work, ‘Politics and Social Battle in South India, the Non-Brahman Motion and Tamil Separatism, 1916-1929’, factors out that the Home included 65 non-Brahmin Hindus and 22 Brahmins, aside from 5 members of the Scheduled Castes who have been official appointees.

The primary Ministry of the Justice Occasion, a precursor to the current DMK, noticed to it that two authorities orders (G.O.), famously referred to as ‘Communal G.O.s’, have been issued in September 1921 and August 1922. For the primary time, caste turned the premise for appointment to public companies. It took over 70 years for the Central authorities to comply with the precept in its establishments for training and employment. In December 1993, the scheme of 69% reservation for Backward Courses, Most Backward Courses, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, in vogue within the State solely via government orders until then, obtained authorized safeguard when the Meeting adopted a Invoice. The legislation was subsequently included within the IX Schedule of the Structure, via an modification handed in Parliament, in order that its validity couldn’t be challenged. The then Chief Minister Jayalalithaa took the lead in offering legislative assist to the scheme of reservation.

Girls’s suffrage

Speaking of essentially the most important fallout of the 1920 election, M.E. Duraipandiyan, former Further Secretary of the Meeting Secretariat, factors out that as girls weren’t a part of the voters, the Council, in its first session in April 1921, resolved to offer voting rights to girls. Subsequently, it determined to take away the restriction on girls getting elected as members. In early 1927, Muthulakshmi Reddy, the well-known medical practitioner and social activist, turned the primary lady member of the Council and, very quickly, turned the Deputy President of the Council.

There have been a number of moments of pleasure related to the Meeting. One of many Congress stalwarts, S. Satyamurti, by rendering the banned songs of Subramania Bharati within the Legislative Council in October 1927, highlighted the difficulty and obtained the ban lifted subsequently. The 88-year-old Kumari Ananthan, former TNCC president, who was elected to the Meeting on 4 events and the Lok Sabha as soon as, remembers that when Kamaraj was on the helm of affairs, C. Subramaniam, as Finance Minister, was the primary to make a price range speech in Tamil in 1957-58. He factors out that Si.Pa. Aditanar, as Speaker throughout March 1967-August 1968, launched the follow of commencing the Home’s proceedings with the recital of a verse from Thirukkural.

When Omandur P. Ramaswami Reddiar was the Chief Minister within the late Nineteen Forties, the federal government gave a convincing reply within the Meeting throughout a debate on the State authorities’s emblem of temple gopuram and obtained the difficulty resolved. In the course of the two-year rule of the DMK founder C.N. Annadurai, the Meeting, in July 1967, adopted a movement renaming Madras State as Tamil Nadu, which later obtained the approval of Parliament too, Mr. Ananthan explains.

One other former official of the Meeting Secretariat factors out that in Jayalalithaa’s first innings as Chief Minister, “Tamil Thai Vazhthu” was rendered in July 1991 for the primary time firstly of the Governor’s handle.

Okay. Balabharathi, a three-term legislator of the CPI(M), says that to the credit score of the legislature, it has handed a number of landmark legal guidelines for the welfare of girls, corresponding to Devadasi abolition, equal rights to girls in property and structure of the State Fee for Girls.

Many stalwarts

Over time, each Homes of legislature [now only one] have had many stalwarts. Whereas A. Ramaswami Mudaliar, A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, Satyamurti, T.A. Ramalingam Chettiar, C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, T.S.S. Rajan, P.T. Rajan, R.Okay. Shanmugam Chetty, C. Subramaniam and R. Venkataraman have been the main figures until the Sixties, the next interval witnessed the debating expertise of P.G. Karuthiruman, Noticed. Ganesan, Okay. Vinayakam, V.R. Nedunchezhian, Panruti S. Ramachandran, Okay. Suppu, Duraimurugan, Mr. Kumari Ananthan, N. Sankariah, and R. Umanath.

Mr. Duraipandiyan says that whereas Mr. Panruti Ramachandran and Okay. Kalimuthu, as Ministers within the AIADMK regime, have been sharp and transient of their replies, Mr. Duraimurugan, whereas representing the treasury benches, may gauge the thoughts of the Opposition effectively forward of the latter finishing their observations. Within the late Seventies, Chief Minister M.G. Ramachandran, maybe, made the longest reply to the dialogue on the Governor’s handle. Mr. Panruti Ramachandran, a seven-term MLA (elected on tickets of 4 events), remembers that your complete line-up of members of the Opposition within the late Sixties and early Seventies was excellent. This included Swatantara Occasion’s D.S. Authimoolam and H.V. Hande (who later switched to the AIADMK and the BJP), Ahead Bloc’s P.Okay. Mookiah Thevar and the CPI(M)’s A. Balasubramaniyam. The 93-year-old Hande, former Well being Minister, who served each the Legislative Council and Legislative Meeting throughout 1964-86, admires the way in which by which Karunanidhi and his long-standing colleague, Okay. Anbazhagan, enlivened discussions within the legislature.

Of late, the Meeting is taking steps to make use of know-how in an enormous manner and the State has joined the Nationwide e-Vidhan Software (NeVA), a programme meant for digitisation of the working of legislatures everywhere in the nation. “We’re transferring in direction of a paperless legislature and to start with, e-budget will probably be offered this yr,” says M. Appavu, Speaker.

The Meeting web site now incorporates the transcript of debates held throughout 2011-20.

Black spots

Within the lengthy historical past of the State legislature, there have been many black spots too.

Scenes of pandemonium have been witnessed in December 1972 when then Meeting Speaker Okay. A. Mathialagan was faraway from workplace and in January 1988, when 33 MLAs of Jayalalithaa’s faction within the ruling AIADMK have been disqualified on the day the Ministry headed by Janaki Ramachandran sought a vote of confidence. In March 1989, when Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi rose to current the State Price range and Jayalalithaa needed a privilege movement to be introduced in in opposition to the Chief Minister, there was a commotion resulting in the ruling and Opposition events utilizing their lung and muscle energy.

In November 2003, amid protests from your complete Opposition, the then Meeting Speaker Kalimuthu awarded, on the adoption of a movement by the Home, a 15-day easy imprisonment to The Hindu’s then Editor N. Ravi, Government Editor Malini Parthasarathy and three others, moreover S. Selvam, Editor of Murasoli, all for breach of privilege. One other notorious occasion of the Meeting performing in opposition to a senior journalist was the one regarding S. Balasubramanian, editor of Ananda Vikatan in April 1987. Whereas the Supreme Courtroom later stayed the operation of the sentence in opposition to the senior journalists of The Hindu, Balasubramanian, after being stored on the Central Jail for 2 days, was launched in deference to the needs of the then Chief Minister M.G. Ramachandran.

In February 2017, the Meeting skilled commotion when the regime, led by Edappadi Okay. Palaniswami, gained a vote of confidence.

Legislature vs judiciary

On the matter of legislature versus judiciary, former Meeting Speaker Sedapatti R. Muthiah, whose tenure of 1991-96 too noticed a number of breach of privilege proceedings in opposition to the Press, together with the Illustrated Weekly of India, feels that there’s nonetheless no clear separation of powers of the legislature and the judiciary. Nevertheless, he concedes that with regard to disqualification of legislators, there exists the scope for judicial intervention.

For a number of years, there have been voices of concern over the declining high quality of debates within the legislature. Mr. Panruti Ramachandran says the issue lies within the collection of candidates. Mr. Duraimurugan, now Water Assets Minister, and who’s an extended serving member of the Meeting, doesn’t agree with the criticism and says that as prior to now, there are legislators who come to the Home completely ready.

Stressing on the significance of normal discussions within the legislature, Dr. Hande remembers how an adjournment movement on the language concern, on the warmth of the anti-Hindi agitation in January 1965, was taken up for a debate within the Legislative Council, after the Chairman M.A. Manickavelu was deftly persuaded by A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, Chief of the Opposition, although the Meeting refused to have any dialogue on the topic.

Former Deputy Speaker V.P. Duraisamy, now within the BJP, says the Opposition needs to be given extra time to make their level. Former CPI ground chief, G. Palanichamy, quotes C.N. Annadurai, who had mentioned the ruling celebration ought to maintain its ears open and the Opposition ought to maintain its mouth open. Former Speaker R. Avudaiappan is hopeful that the state of affairs will enhance below the current DMK regime. And this isn’t simply the want of Mr. Avudaiappan alone.

Why a gopuram was chosen as the symbol of the Tamil Nadu authorities

“An emblem of this selection won’t take away the secular character of the federal government…In selecting an emblem, we’ve to consider one thing which typifies typically south Indian tradition. We can not consider anything for this goal than a temple gopuram.” 

B. Gopala Reddi, Finance Minister and Chief of Home within the Legislative Meeting, on July 15, 1948 

Key milestones

January 1921: The Madras Legislative Council, the largest physique of its sort in India, constituted with 127 members, together with 98 elected representatives, and a hard and fast time period of three years, meets at Fort St. George. It was inaugurated by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, and uncle of George V, Emperor of England, on January 12 

April 1921: Council adopts removing of intercourse disqualification on girls for franchise 

C. Rajagopalachari, Premier of Madras, presenting his first Budget in the Assembly on September 1, 1937.

C. Rajagopalachari, Premier of Madras, presenting his first Price range within the Meeting on September 1, 1937.
 
| Photograph Credit score: The Hindu Archives

 

July 1937: Bi-cameral legislature shaped with the Legislative Meeting having 215 members and the Legislative Council having 56.  Holds deliberations at Senate Home within the Chepauk campus of the College of Madras and Banqueting Corridor (Rajaji Corridor) within the Authorities Property until October 1939, earlier than switching again to Fort St. George

March 1952:  The primary Meeting after Independence is constituted with 375 seats with 243 single-member constituencies and 66 double-member constituencies. The Legislative Council’s energy rose to 72 members, together with 12 nominated members.  Meets on the Youngsters’s Theatre (later referred to as Kalaivanar Arangam) on the Authorities Property

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressing the members of the Madras Legislature on October 20, 1953. Chief Minister C. Rajagopalachari and Vice-President Dr. S. Radhakrishnan are also seen.

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressing the members of the Madras Legislature on October 20, 1953. Chief Minister C. Rajagopalachari and Vice-President Dr. S. Radhakrishnan are additionally seen.
 
| Photograph Credit score: The Hindu Archives

 

April 1957: Subsequent to reorganisation of States on linguistic traces, the Legislative Meeting energy went all the way down to 205. Fort St. George but once more turns into the venue of deliberations, and stays so until January 2010

April 20 to Might 9, 1957: the one event when the Meeting and the Council met exterior Chennai – Aranmore Palace, Udhagamandalam

March 1967: Meeting’s energy goes as much as 234, which is the determine even now  

November 1986: Legislative Council is abolished  

Congress MLAs D. Yasoda and R. Easwara injured in the clash between the ruling AIADMK and Congress during the Janaki Ramachandran government's trust vote on January 28, 1988.

Congress MLAs D. Yasoda and R. Easwara injured within the conflict between the ruling AIADMK and Congress throughout the Janaki Ramachandran authorities’s belief vote on January 28, 1988.
 
| Photograph Credit score: The Hindu Archives

Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi presenting the State Budget for 1999-2000 on March 17, 1999.

Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi presenting the State Price range for 1999-2000 on March 17, 1999.
 
| Photograph Credit score: The Hindu Archives

Chief Minister Jayalalithaa and Opposition leader K. Anbhazagan at the Assembly session on January 23, 2003.

Chief Minister Jayalalithaa and Opposition chief Okay. Anbhazagan on the Meeting session on January 23, 2003.
 

 

March 2010: Meeting-Secretariat Complicated, Omandurar Authorities Property, declared open  

Might 2011: Meeting strikes again to Fort St. George 

Chief Minister Jayalalithaa and State Finance Minister O. Panneerselvam arrive to present the 2012-2013 State Budget on March 26, 2012.

Chief Minister Jayalalithaa and State Finance Minister O. Panneerselvam arrive to current the 2012-2013 State Price range on March 26, 2012.
 
| Photograph Credit score: RAGU R

Leader of Opposition and DMK working president M.K. Stalin walking out of the Assembly in a torn shirt after the trust vote for Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami was held on February 18, 2017.

Chief of Opposition and DMK working president M.Okay. Stalin strolling out of the Meeting in a torn shirt after the belief vote for Chief Minister Edappadi Okay. Palaniswami was held on February 18, 2017.
 
| Photograph Credit score: RAGHUNATHAN SR

 

September 2020: Meeting begins holding deliberations on the new Kalaivanar Arangam in the Omandurar Authorities Property, in tune with private distancing norms as a result of COVID-19 pandemic 

Supply: The Hindu Archives & the Tamil Nadu Meeting Secretariat

Presiding Officers of Tamil Nadu legislature

Presidents or Chairpersons of Legislative Council

  • P. Rajagopalachari – 1920-23 
  • Lewis Dominic Swamikannu Pillai – 1923-25
  • M. Ruthnaswamy – 1925-26
  • C.V.S. Narasimha Raju – 1926-30
  • B. Ramachandra Reddy – 1930-37 
  • U. Rama Rao – 1937-46
  • R.B. Ramakrishna Raju – 1946-52  
  • P.V. Cherian – 1952-64 
  • M.A. Manickavelu – 1964-70 
  • C.P. Chitrarasu – 1970-76
  • M.P. Sivagnanam – 1978-86

Audio system of Legislative Meeting: 

  • Bulusu Sambamurthy – 1937-1942 
  • J. Sivashanmugam Pillai – 1946-55
  • N. Gopala Menon – 1955-56
  • U. Krishna Rao – 1957-61
  • S. Chellapandian – 1962-67
  • Si. Pa. Aditanar – 1967-68
  • Pulavar Okay. Govindan – 1969-71 and 1973-77
  • Okay.A. Mathialagan – 1971-72
  • Munu Adi – 1977-1980
  • Okay. Rajaram – 1980-85 
  • P.H. Pandian – 1985-89
  • M. Tamilkudimagan – 1989-91 
  • R. Muthiah – 1991-96 
  • P.T.R. Palanivel Rajan – 1996-2001 
  • Okay. Kalimuthu – 2001-2006
  • R. Avudaiappan – 2006-2011 
  • D. Jayakumar – 2011-2012 
  • P. Dhanapal – 2012-21 
  • M. Appavu – since Might 12, 2021

Premiers or Chief Ministers of Madras Presidency or Tamil Nadu

Identify       Party   Interval  
A Subbarayalu Reddiar  Justice Occasion  17-12-1920 to 11-07-1921 
P. Ramarayaningar or Raja of Panagal  – do –   11-07-1921 to 3-12-1926 
P. Subbarayan  Impartial  4-12-1926 to 27-10-1930 
B. Munuswami Naidu  Justice Occasion  27-10-1930 to 4-11-1932 
Ramakrishna Ranga Rao, Raja of Bobbili  – do –

5-11-1932 to 4-4-1936 

24-08-1936 to 1-04-1937 

P.T. Rajan  – do –   4-4-1936 to 24-8-1936 
Okay.V. Reddi Naidu  – do –   1-4-1937 to 14-7-1937  
C. Rajagopalachari or Rajaji  Congress  

14-07-1937 to 29-10-1939 

10-04-1952 to 13-04-1954 

Tanguturi Prakasam – do –   30-04-1946 to 23-03-1947 
Omandur P. Ramaswami Reddiar  – do –     23-03-1947 to 6-04-1949 
P.S. Kumaraswami Raja  – do –   6-04-1949 to 9-04-1952 
Okay. Kamaraj  – do –   13-04-1954 to 2-10-1963 
M. Bakthavatsalam  – do –   2-10-1963 to 6-3-1967 
C.N. Annadurai  DMK  6-03-1967 to 3-02-1969 
V.R. Nedunchezhian 

DMK 

AIADMK 

3-02-1969 to 9-02-1969 

24-12-1987 to 06-01-1988

M. Karunanidhi DMK

10-02-1969 to 5-01-1971* 

15-03-1971 to 31-01-1976 

27-01-1989 to 30-01-1991 

13-05-1996 to 13-05-2001

13-05-2006 to 15-05-2011

M.G. Ramachandran  AIADMK 

30-06-1977 to 17-02-1980  

9-06-1980 to 15-11-1984*

10-02-1985 to 24-12-1987 

Janaki Ramachandran  – do –   7-01-1988 to 30-01-1988 
J. Jayalalithaa  AIADMK  

24-06-1991 to 12-05-1996 

14-05-2001 to 21-09-2001 

2-03-2002 to 12-05-2006 

16-05-2011 to 27-09-2014 

23-05-2015 to 21-05-2016 

23-05-2016 to 5-12-2016 

O. Panneerselvam  AIADMK  

21-09-2001 to 1-03-2002

29-09-2014 to 22-05-2015 

6-12-2016 to 15-02-2017

Edappadi Okay. Palaniswami  – do –   16-02-2017 to 6-5-2021 
M.Okay. Stalin  DMK   7-5-2021 to current

*the dates pertain to the dates of dissolution of the 4th Meeting and seventh Meeting although the incumbents remained as Chief Ministers

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