In Jammu and Kashmir, a fragile peace amid persisting conflict

As the Army finds success in checking infiltration, ceasefire violations by Pakistan have gone up. Dinakar Peri studies on the woes of the folks of Jammu and Kashmir residing in worry of shelling, going through lack of earnings from commerce and tourism and carrying on with out 4G Internet

On the afternoon of July 8, 2020, Sadaqat Hussain, 23, and Zameer Ahmed, 26, have been hit by sniper fire from the Pakistani side of the Line of Control (LoC) in Simari Panchayat, Tangdhar sector of Kupwara district in Jammu and Kashmir, whereas they have been serving to assemble a neighborhood bunker. Ceasefire violations alongside the LoC and the International Border (IB) have elevated in the previous couple of years; this 12 months, they’ve reached a new excessive. This elevated alternate of fireplace, involving small arms, mortars and medium artillery, and inflicting accidents and deaths, has led to a scramble to construct bunkers for villages alongside the border. The incident in Tangdhar occurred throughout one such development effort. Army officers stated the employees have been in all probability mistaken for army personnel. Hussain and Ahmed obtained some help from the Army however are nonetheless someday away from full restoration. One has been injured within the leg and the opposite within the abdomen.

According to official information, in 2018, there have been 1,629 ceasefire violations alongside the LoC and IB. This quantity elevated to three,168 in 2019 and has touched a new excessive of 4,052 up to now this 12 months, together with main alternate of fireplace simply earlier than Deepavali. There have been over 128 incidents already this month and 396 in October. Ceasefire violations have resulted in 20 civilian deaths this 12 months; 47 folks have sustained accidents. A bulk of the ceasefire violations have been within the Jammu area. “Shelling had reduced after 2012, but it increased again from last year,” a native villager stated throughout an interplay with a small group of journalists who visited the place in mid-October.

In Jammu and Kashmir, a fragile peace amid persisting conflict


The Tithwal border crossing level on the LoC, which was open until November 2018, has remained shut since. With current developments, there is no such thing as a scope of it being opened for the general public once more. Originally inbuilt 1931 and destroyed and rebuilt since, the bridge is open solely throughout emergencies now. Dogs squeeze by way of the barbed wire and cross freely below the watchful gaze of the guards and surveillance cameras. “Who will stop them?” stated one jawan laughing.

Possibility of escalation of tensions

Tithwal has a inhabitants of about 1,100 folks, whereas Simari has a smaller inhabitants of 750 folks. Villagers reminisced about their visits throughout the border to see their kin throughout higher occasions. “Shelling began in and around Tithwal in 2018,” stated Izaz Ahmed, a instructor, and chairman of the Chinar Youth Committee. Ahmed has kin on his father’s facet throughout the border and has been to Pakistan a number of occasions. He stated those that wished to journey used to acquire a allow from Srinagar. “It took about one or two months to get the permit. They would let us travel up to 15 days and would extend that by up to two months on a case-by-case basis,” he defined. Several villagers complained that not solely might they not go throughout the border, however even cellular connectivity had stopped 50 to 100 metres in need of their village.

People sit in their fields on October 14, 2020 as houses located in the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir are seen in the background at Tithwal village near the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kupwara district.

People sit of their fields on October 14, 2020 as homes situated within the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir are seen within the background at Tithwal village close to the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kupwara district.
| Photo Credit: AFP


“Tangdhar was active last year,” stated an officer speaking of ceasefire violations after the Balakot airstrike in February that heightened tensions between India and Pakistan. In Tangdhar sector, 60 previous bunkers which had fallen into disuse over time at the moment are being transformed into 120 neighborhood bunkers, in keeping with authorities specs. These bunkers are unfold throughout 32 panchayats consisting of 42 income villages with a inhabitants of over 70,000 folks. Work on 75 bunkers is full; the remaining are at a sophisticated stage of completion. Each bunker prices round ₹20 lakh and can accommodate 50-60 folks.

Lolab Valley in Kupwara district, as soon as a hotbed of terrorist exercise, is now largely quiet. “There is a possibility of escalation of tensions here, so we are keeping watch,” stated an officer. At the Army Goodwill School, Chandigam, in Lolab Valley, situated a few kilometres from the LoC, the variety of college students has elevated through the years. “Most of them come from poor backgrounds. There is a growing awareness about educating children,” stated Zahida Maqbool Shah, the varsity principal. Except for a few threats up to now to close down the varsity, the state of affairs has been peaceable. The charge is subsidised by the Army. During the pandemic, nonetheless, cost has been deferred as many haven’t been in a position to afford even the subsidised charge.

The faculty was established in 2000 below the Army’s Sadbhavana initiative. It has 697 college students: 472 boys and 225 women. The faculty admits college students as much as Class XII and was recognised by the Jammu and Kashmir Board of Education in 2015-16. This is without doubt one of the 28 Army Goodwill Schools arrange by the Army in Kashmir Valley. Talking concerning the faculty, Lieutenant General B.S. Raju, 15 Corps Commander, stated, “What people here want is just a good quality of life, a decent life, like everyone else in the world. This is the common man’s aspiration in the Valley.”

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Preventing infiltration makes an attempt

Lt Gen Raju stated the primary tier of the anti-infiltration grid has been strengthened. “If the first grid is strong, it will help in stopping infiltration. This also gives us a chance to detect infiltration of terrorists,” he stated. “We have been able to stop infiltration substantially. We have given troops on the ground additional surveillance and technology,” he stated in Srinagar. “The scale of ceasefire violations went up and then came down slightly. We have managed to limit calibre escalation.” Data present that infiltration has been successfully curtailed. Twenty-seven terrorists infiltrated the border this 12 months until mid-October, in comparison with 130 in 2019 and 129 in 2018.

There are an estimated 22 terror launch pads lively alongside the LoC with round 300 terrorists ready to infiltrate the border. While infiltration stays low, there are revolutionary makes an attempt being made to smuggle in weapons. Even drones have been used on a few events in Jammu. There has additionally been a rise within the restoration of arms and ammunition together with U.S.-origin M4 rifles and Chinese rifles. This 12 months, over 143 of the AK collection, 5 M4s and two M16s have been recovered, amongst different weapons.

Also learn | Around 300 terrorists waiting in PoK for intrusion; Army re-calibrates counter-infiltration grid

The Army can also be within the strategy of upgrading the border fence. The present fence, referred to as the anti-infiltration impediment system, is situated about 700 m from the LoC. It is a double row fence consisting of concertina wire and was constructed between 2003 and 2005. Keeping in view the annual put on and tear of the fence because of snowfall, the Army has determined to undertake a hybrid mannequin which can price round ₹10 lakh per km. The Army is making an attempt to assemble 60 km this 12 months, an officer on the LoC stated. There is heavy snowfall in lots of areas which makes the steel brittle. As a end result, the fence must be repaired yearly. The Corps Commander has prompt that the sensors put in needs to be modular with a plug and play choice to forestall their harm, one other officer stated. Charging and upkeep services will probably be out there on the native posts.

Since he took over command of 15 Corps in March, Lt Gen Raju has additionally determined to dispose of the purpose system for restoration of weapons within the Valley (a system by which Units earn citations and rewards in an try to discourage deviations). He stated the system has seen too many discrepancies and additionally provides the improper message.

Also learn | Hybrid model of ‘smart’ fence being tested along the LoC

Pitch for connectivity

While the Army is busy on the border, the residents in Tanghdar have their very own woes. They have been interesting for a tunnel, because the area will get minimize off throughout winters. This has been promised however hasn’t been authorised but, they stated. “A tunnel will ensure connectivity all year and bring development. In February, a representation was made to the Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways, Nitin Gadkari,” stated Wali Ahmed, chairman of the tunnel coordination committee. “In winter, it is a challenge to stock up essential supplies and prices go up,” stated Mansor Ahmed, principal of the native faculty.

A soldier stands on guard in Tangdhar sector close to the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kupwara district.

A soldier stands on guard in Tangdhar sector near the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kupwara district.
| Photo Credit:
Dinakar Peri


A neighborhood official stated a feasibility research was imagined to have been taken up in February however has been delayed because of COVID-19. It will not be but clear when the research will happen. A senior Army officer stated the length for which the Sadhna Pass, earlier referred to as the Nastachun Pass, on the Kupwara-Tangdhar freeway is minimize off has been considerably lowered in the previous couple of years.

However, the danger of avalanches and hazards stays considerably excessive. In April this 12 months, the sub-divisional Justice of the Peace, Bilal M. Bhat, and two of his employees had a slim escape after their car was hit by a large avalanche as they have been returning after monitoring the COVID-19 state of affairs. Timely rescue by the Army saved their lives. The tunnel is one choice however given the excessive price, different choices like a ropeway must also be explored, the officer stated.

Also learn | 2G mobile Internet service extended in 18 out of 20 districts till November 26

Many residents additionally raised the difficulty of 4G Internet service, which has not been restored after being suspended in August final 12 months. Since the COVID-19 lockdown, this drawback has prompted a lot of displeasure as professionals and college students have been working and learning from dwelling.

A 12 months for the reason that abrogation of Jammu and Kashmir’s particular standing and the conversion of the State into two Union Territories, cross-border firings have elevated and infiltration and incidents of stone throwing have decreased. An eerie silence has descended on the Valley, stated an official who didn’t want to be recognized. “Despite restrictions, some flare-up was expected, but all indices point to normalcy. There is an uneasy calm here,” he stated.

People round Srinagar and as much as Tangdhar sector recognized 4G, roads and connectivity as the primary points affecting the folks. After the abrogation of particular standing, folks wish to see tangible modifications on the bottom, stated Army and authorities officers.

An uneasy calm on the bottom

Though sturdy counter-infiltration measures are in place, native recruitment stays a concern. The exercise has shifted from north Kashmir to south Kashmir. According to information from the Army, 219 terrorists have been domestically recruited in 2018, 119 in 2019, and 135 as of October 6 this 12 months. An estimated 207 terrorists are lively within the Valley of which 90 are Pakistanis. Data present that recruitment of individuals for terrorist actions, which was 24 in 2011 and 19 in 2012, has steadily gone up. In 2017, a 12 months after the Army’s ‘surgical strikes’ on terror camps in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (POK) and the killing of Burhan Wani, recruitment went as much as 128 from 88 the earlier 12 months.

Also learn | ‘Contact tracing’ helping Army wean youths away from terrorism: Lt Gen Raju

Given this development, the Army’s focus has shifted to selling surrenders by involving households, stated each Lt Gen Raju and Major General Rashim Bali, General Officer Commanding of the Victor Force protecting South Kashmir. “We are advocating minimum use of force and minimum collateral damage so that loss of lives and damage to property are avoided,” they stated. There has been a rise in surrenders too, they stated. “We will be doing more work on the issue of surrenders because for us, getting a man back is more important than neutralising him. And that is a work in progress,” stated Lt Gen Raju. The Army needs to achieve out to folks in such a method that “there will be little reason for people to take up arms,” he stated. It is necessary to cease recruitment, he emphasised. Lt Gen Raju stated that they wish to break the barrier between the Army and the folks. “It is important for us. We need to do more. We have intensified our youth outreach programme,” he stated.

Early this 12 months, safety forces determined to not permit public funerals for terrorists killed in encounters with a purpose to keep away from main congregations and recruitment. “We told them that it is essential to avoid collateral damage and also peer pressure,” stated Maj Gen Bali. Family members are taken alongside and the burial is held elsewhere, not within the native village.

Also learn | Centre considers resettling J&K youth who give up arms

Impact of the pandemic

As restrictions imposed after the August 5, 2019 have been eased and a semblance of normalcy returned to the Valley, there was expectation that tourism would choose up. But the state of affairs as soon as once more went into a tailspin because of COVID-19 and the ensuing lockdown. Both final 12 months and this 12 months, tourism was affected because of lockdowns, stated a native vendor. As a end result, tourism, a main income generator for the summer time months, in addition to apple cultivation, the largest income generator, have been each badly hit. Dal Lake in Srinagar, a main draw for vacationers, remained largely devoid of crowds. Boat operators might be seen providing discounted rides for folks strolling on the pavements alongside the lake. Several pleaded with vacationers to take a journey at ₹200. “It has been a very tough season,” one operator stated.

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Mir Junaid, president of the Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party and a Sarpanch in Kupwara district, stated Kashmir goes by way of a paradigm shift. With the “political confusion of the past one year” erased, folks now wish to lead a regular and completely happy life, however the pace of Internet bothers them, he stated. “The job of the government is to work on easing tensions and finding a solution to the problem of terrorism. If that is sorted, we will be able to conclude that Kashmir’s renaissance or makeover is complete,” he stated to The Hindu. The social isolation prompted publish the exodus of Kashmiri Pandits is one other necessary level that wants decision for the re-colouring of the light cultural cloth of Kashmir, he added.

Also learn | How did Shopian, Kashmir’s apple bowl, turn into a battleground district?

Kashmiri apples, recognized for his or her high quality and style, suffered a twin blow this 12 months. While yield remained a lot decrease than regular as a result of pandemic and the lockdown, fewer high quality management checks led to faux pesticides flooding the market, endangering the crop. The result’s that a majority of the produce has been marked ‘lower grade’ and is being bought at a cheaper price.

Normally 80% of the produce is categorised as ‘Grade A’, stated Ashraf Wani, president of the fruit mandi in Shopian district of South Kashmir. “Last year, half the lot got spoiled due to the unrest. This year, due to the lockdown, there were spurious pesticides in the market. Those spoiled the apples. There was also fungal infection caused by Venturia inaequalis,” Wani stated. “About 60-70% of the produce got spoilt and was given a lower grade.” This drawback persists all through the Valley and the Departments of Horticulture and Enforcement ought to act, he stated. There is just one laboratory in Jammu and Kashmir to examine pesticides, and it’s situated in Srinagar, he stated. Testing within the lab takes six months. There is demand for 2 extra labs.

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As we stopped at an orchard close to the mandi, broken apples might be seen in important numbers hanging from timber throughout the small orchard. The apples are spoilt, there aren’t any vacationers and the folks of the Valley are hunkering down for a lengthy, bitterly chilly winter. The hope is that there’ll at the least be peace.

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